Piotrkow Trybunalski, known in Yiddish as Piotrykov, in Russian as Petrokov and in
German as Petrikau, is a town in central Poland, about 16 miles (26 km) south of
. One of Poland's oldest
cities, it had been a part of Russia between 1815 and 1915
, before reverting to Poland in
. An important industrial centre, the principal industries were the manufacture of
textiles and wood and glass products. Jews had lived there since the early Middle Ages,
and by 1939
numbered some 15,000 residents, approximately 27% of the total population.
The thriving Jewish community, both secular and Orthodox, supported three weekly
newspapers as well as a wealth of religious, cultural and political organisations and institutions.
There were numerous synagogues and houses of prayer in the town, with the Great
Synagogue considered one of the most beautiful buildings of its kind in Poland.
Following the outbreak of war on 1 September 1939
, more than 1,000 Jews were killed
on 4 September
in bombing raids on the nearby village of
, where they had fled before the
advancing German army.
After some initial bombing and shelling, Piotrkow was occupied
on 5 September 1939
. The persecution of the Jewish population began immediately. Men
were seized in the streets for slave labour. Beatings and killings became commonplace.
Although approximately 2,000 Jews had managed to escape from the town to the Soviet-occupied
zone in the initial days of the occupation, throughout 1939 - 40
the population was
swollen by Jews from neighbouring towns and other places in Poland, including
Warsaw, Lodz, Belchatow, Kalisz, Gniezno
Headed by Zalmen Tenenbaum
, a former Vice-President of the pre-war Jewish Council, a
24 member Judenrat
was established in the early days of the occupation.
was also appointed President of all of the Judenräte
of the county of Piotrkow. In October 1939
, the Wehrmacht
administration of the city to the civilian authorities under the command of Oberbürgermeister
, who on 8 October 1939
issued a decree
establishing a ghetto, the first in occupied Poland. As elsewhere, living conditions in the ghetto were appalling.
5,000 - 6,000 people had lived in the ghetto area before the war; now 28,000 were incarcerated there. Many houses
had no electricity, water supply or basic facilities. The ghetto was closed on 28 October
was 9 years old when the war began. Her parents and their
5 children lived in Lodz
, but moved to Piotrkow in the early days
of the war. She recalled:
"We all stayed in one little room, the seven of us. Another 14 people came to the room
at different times…I remember sleeping on a chair with one of my brothers, it was awful.
My father got caught foraging for food and was put in prison. I never saw my father again…
My brother Zigmund and I were the breadwinners. He was about 14. We collected
all the food. He and I started selling bread and potatoes. We didn't have anything else to sell. And then
we started scavenging and begging from non-Jewish people. Being such small children
we could get through any hole. We learned how to steal, how to beg. My mother was unable
to do anything. She just couldn't cope. We were very hungry. So we went out of the ghetto.
We went backwards and forwards. Then the day came when they sealed the ghetto...
Many of the Jews were employed at the Hortensja Glassworks
, which mainly produced jars
and bottles, at the Kara
factory, which manufactured plate glass, or the Bugaj Wood Factory
Another survivor, Ben Helfgott
"Young people suffered. From fifteen onwards, they could not walk in the streets for fear
of being taken for forced labour. In mid-1940, 200 - 250 were rounded up and taken to
build fortifications on the River Bug... There was no real rule that
anyone that went out of the ghetto would be shot. Some would be shot, some would be
beaten…Our nights weren't safe either. The police would knock on the doors at night
to round up young people to be taken away for forced labour.
On 29 November 1939
with a decree signed by
. A "fine" of 350,000 zlotys had been imposed on the Jewish
community of Piotrkow. To guarantee payment, the Germans seized three hostages, who
were beaten so badly that one of them, Leib Dessau
, died. The "fine" was
paid, as was a subsequent demand for more money, 12,000 eggs, 500 sacks of flour,
300 kg of butter and 100 sacks of sugar. This kind of extortion was typical of what was
occurring throughout occupied Poland.
In July 1940
, Jews were taken from Piotrkow to two nearby swamps, where they were forced
to dig ditches and canals. They were forced to work naked, standing in water up to their
waists. Many died of tuberculosis or pneumonia. Some were only 12 years old.
Between June and July 1941
, the Germans uncovered the existence of a Jewish underground
movement in the ghetto. 11 members of the Judenrat
, which had been co-operating
with the underground were arrested, including the President,
. After more than two months of interrogation and torture,
all of the arrested were sent to
on 13 September 1941
. A few days later,
the family of the deportees were informed of their deaths "due to illness". Szymon
was appointed as the new head of the Judenrat
Rumours concerning the fate of the Jews of Eastern Europe circulated within the ghetto.
, marching daily to the Hortensja Glassworks
befriended by a guard, Waclaw Bordo
, who one day in
passed to him a copy of the underground socialist newspaper
In it, Kotkowsky
read of the deportation of the Jews of
to an unknown destination, and of
massacres of Jews at Vilna
Soon after, Kotkowsky
learned of the death camps at
from other underground
newspapers. He told everybody he trusted that the ghettos were being emptied and the Jews gassed. People did
not and could not believe it. It was incomprehensible.
|German Police in Piotrkow
Jews from the surrounding villages of Srock, Tuszyn,
Wolborz, Przyglow, Sulejow, Rozprza
had been transferred to the Piotrkow Ghetto. During the night of 13 October 1942
, SS and
Ukrainian militia, organized by SS-Hauptsturmführer
, surrounded the ghetto. At 2 a.m. on
, the Aktion
Commanded by a SS-Sturmbannführer Feucht
, it was to last for
eight days. House by house, the ghetto was cleared. About 1,000 mainly sick or elderly persons
were shot on the spot. The remainder were herded to the assembly point. Two columns were
formed; about 2,000 Jews possessing work cards were separated and returned to the ghetto.
The remainder, numbering some 22,000 people in four transports, were transported to
and gassed on arrival. Several witnesses
survived the selection and described the events. Harry Spiro
"A general curfew was declared, and we knew that the ghetto was going to be deported. An
announcement was made that all those who worked in factories outside the ghetto including
Hortensja should leave their homes and meet outside the synagogue. I refused to leave
my family, but my mother told me to go. I still refused, and then she physically pushed me
out of the house. Her last words to me were,'At least let one of our family survive'... That
was the last I ever saw of my mother, father and sister.
Jehoszua Cygelfarb (Joshua Segal)
had been working in the
factory for three years. He recalled:
"Everyone had to gather in the square. An SS-officer ordered everybody to stand up, and
all those who were working in some capacity were to stand to one side. My brother and I
moved to where the officer indicated…An officer moved down the line and selected people to
move to the left or right. Fathers and people who had work cards with Swastika approval went
to the right, the rest of the families went to the left. When he came to my family, he separated
my father from my mother and sisters, but my father refused to leave the family and said, 'I go
with my wife', and proceeded to go left.
After the German officer had finished dividing the people, the soldiers surrounded the group
and marched them away to the railway station and loaded them into cattle cars without food
or water. They were told they were going to a labour camp. The train started down the tracks,
going past the glass factory where I was working. I heard the train whistle, and knew without looking
up from my lathe what was in that train. But I did not know that my own family were in the boxcars,
and that I would never see them again…I was fifteen years old and my brother was nineteen
and we were alone.
Artek (Arthur) Poznanski
was not yet 15 at the time of the deportations.
His brother Jerzyk (Jerzy)
was 12. Both worked in the Hortensja
On returning to the two and a half streets that now comprised the ghetto, he was handed a note hastily scribbled
by his mother:
"We are being taken. May God help you, as we cannot do anything more for you.
And whatever may happen, look after Jerzyk.
He is but a child and has got no one else.
" He was distraught. "No parents,
no home, no money and a younger brother to look after; what am I going to do?
was only 10 years old in October 1942
His mother was selected for deportation, but one of his sisters, Frania
told by a German officer not to attempt to join her. "Stay where you are", the German said. "Your mother is
old, it is all right for her to die, and you are young." Sevek
"…The people were forced into cattle cars, as many as 150 to one car. Before they were
driven into these cars they had to abandon all their possessions. The people were packed into
these railroad cars like sardines. Many of the children were crushed to death before the train even left.
Officially there were 2,000 "legal" Jews remaining in Piotrkow, housed in the so-called "small ghetto" on
. In fact, there were a similar
number of "illegal" Jews who had hidden at the time of the deportations and who now mingled with the
"legals". The "illegals" led a precarious existence. They were unable to register for legitimate employment,
could not obtain ration cards and were constantly seeking shelter. Moreover, the Germans were aware
of their existence, and systematically searched for them. Those discovered were gathered in the
synagogue then sent to Tomaszow Mazowiecki
, from where they were deported to
together with the Jews of Tomaszow
on 3 November
. Thereafter, any Jews found hiding in the ghetto were killed where
they were found.
Having first worked in the Hortensja
factories, Artek Poznanski
was employed by the Befehlsstelle
, a Special Orders Group, mainly utilised for the clearing
of houses in the former ghetto and the sorting of goods and possessions left behind by the
deported Jews. He recalled:
"Disposing of the last traces of many thousands of families (who we suspected, though we were
not really sure and refused to credit, were no longer alive) was a heartbreaking operation, but the
ever-present threat to our lives hardened us against sentimentality. Every day countless books,
diaries, photographs, letters and mementoes of a whole community were thrown on bonfires, while
we sorted out mountains of bedding, clothing, furniture, utensils, tools and ornaments, and loaded
them on lorries for transport to Germany.
|Old Jew in Piotrkow
On 19 November 1942
, 100 mainly elderly Jews were taken from the synagogue to the
, near Piotrkow and shot. Six days later,
assured by the Germans that they were needed for work and would be safe, all "illegals" were ordered
to present themselves for registration. Those who did so were also taken to the synagogue, which
was surrounded by Ukrainian guards who proceeded to shoot into the building. The imprisoned Jews,
including many children, had no food, no water and no light. In an act of great sacrifice,
and Tova Weinstock
up at the synagogue in order to change places with their children, thus saving the children's lives
at the expense of their own. Some captives possessing a skilled trade were returned to the ghetto
as "legals". On 19 December
, 42 men were taken from the synagogue to the
, where they were ordered to
dig five burial pits. Most of the men were then shot. A few escaped to the forest. That night, 520 Jews
were marched to the burial pits in groups of 50 and shot there. Among them were
's mother, Sara
, aged 37 and
his sister Luisa
, aged 8. Artek Poznanski
"In freezing conditions terrorised by bayonets and rifle butts, they were forced to undress, were
machine-gunned, and then buried in the trenches. In the confusion of the massacre, six or seven
individuals, some wounded, managed to escape. Some time later I met one of them in the
Bugaj timberworks, a pale, blue-eyed boy 14 or 15 years old. He told me how, only slightly
wounded, he managed to manoeuvre himself on top of a pile of bleeding corpses. Covered with
heaps of leaves and chunks of frozen earth, and barely able to breathe, he remained virtually
motionless until nightfall. Then under cover of darkness, he crawled out and dragged himself
back to the ghetto…I noticed him mainly because of one unusual feature; his hair was completely white.
Five months after the mass deportations, on 21 March 1943
, a date chosen to coincide
with the Jewish festival of Purim, "legal" Jews were told that there was to be an exchange with German citizens
living in the settlement of Sarona
. Ten university graduates were required for the
exchange, but only eight could be found. They were driven to the Jewish cemetery, where a pit
had been dug. There, together with the Jewish watchman of the cemetery and his wife, they were shot.
At the end of July 1943
the small ghetto was liquidated. 1,720 Jews were allowed
to remain in Piotrkow – 1,000 in the Bugaj factory and the remainder in the two glassworks. 1,500 other Jews
were deported to the forced labour camps at Blizyn, Pionki
. On 24 November 1944
, the last Jews of
Piotrkow were deported to a number of different concentration camps:
Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Mauthausen, Ravensbrück
, amongst others.
Piotrkow was liberated by the Red Army on 16 January 1945
. Out of the estimated 28,000 Jews
who had been imprisoned in the ghetto, 1,600-1,700 had survived, either in the camps or in
hiding. Some survivors returned to Piotrkow at the war's end, among them
. He was not welcomed. He and his cousin,
, were arrested by Polish policemen, who threatened to shoot them.
After a desperate appeal, they were released. One of the policemen said, "You can consider
yourselves very lucky. We have killed many of your kind. You are the first ones we have left
alive." Others were not so fortunate. A Jewish woman, Sala Uszerowicz
had sold her father's apartment in Piotrkow to a Pole for 600 zlotys, the equivalent to about 5 US
dollars. She was murdered the same day, together with her fiancée,
and a friend, Rachel Rolnik
, Ben Helfgott
returned once more to Piotrkow,
this time with Sir Martin Gilbert
and a party of English students.
At the Hortensja Glass Works
of factory workers from 1940 to 1944
's name was listed, together with his address, date of
birth and the description Zyd
Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust
, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1990
Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust – The Jewish Tragedy
, William Collins Sons & Co. Limited, London, 1986
Gilbert, Martin. Holocaust Journey – Travelling in Search of the Past
, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997
Gilbert, Martin. The Boys – Triumph over Adversity
, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1996
Gill, Anton. The Journey Back from Hell – Conversations with Concentration Camp Survivors
Grafton Books, London, 1989
Trunk, Isaiah. Judenrat – The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation
University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1996
© ARC 2005