Polish version: longer text with partisan activities included.
|Zwolen Market-place, 16 Sep 39
Jews had lived in Zwolen since the 16th century. By the 17th century they already represented
10% of the population of the town, which then numbered 2,700 inhabitants. In the period before WW2,
3,000 Jews resided in the town, representing 50% of the total population. The Jews of Zwolen were
not wealthy, most of them being artisans and shopkeepers.
On 6 September 1939
, Zwolen was
by the Deutsche Luftwaffe
for the first time.
The second air attack, coinciding with a bombardment by German artillery, took place two days later.
Almost 80% of the town was
The destruction of Zwolen was an interesting subject for German soldiers. They took many photographs of
, and non-Jews who lived in a poor condition.
Shortly after entering Zwolen, German soldiers burned a group of Jews alive in a barn.
The economic persecution of the Jews also began immediately. The Nazis confiscated Jewish
property, and Jews were forced to pay very high "fines". The
in Zwolen, which had been severely damaged during the bombing
of the town was totally destroyed at the beginning of the occupation.
As in other towns and cities throughout German occupied Poland, Jews from Zwolen
|Forced Jews in Zwolen, 17 Sep 39
|Forced Jews in Zwolen,
in September 39
At the beginning of 1941
, a ghetto was established in the southern part of the town.
About 6,000-7,000 Jews from Zwolen and from neighbouring villages were concentrated in
the ghetto. Because virtually the entire town had been destroyed the ghetto was not closed,
but those people who tried to leave the Jewish houses looking for food were in many cases
caught and executed.
, a group of young men and women were selected in Zwolen and
sent to the work camp
. The camp belonged to the
company and prisoners worked there producing muntions for the German army.
The final liquidation of the Zwolen ghetto took place on 29 September 1942
The Jews had to walk 15 km to the
Garbatka railway station
and from there they were deported to the death camp in
During the liquidation of the ghetto and on the way to the railway station, about 200 Jews were
executed. Mainly old and sick people who were not able to walk to the train were killed
. Among those executed on the spot were also those who
attempted to escape.
A last group of approximately 100 people was left in Zwolen, their task being the cleaning of the
ghetto area. After completing this work, all of them were sent to a labour camp.
the Jewish cemetery was destroyed. During its destruction the Germans
also liquidated all traces of the mass executions that had been conducted there.
War Crimes, Other Mass Extermination Crimes
Schuster, Albert Hugo
Death Sentence Rehab:
Sentence reduced to
LG/BG Karl-Marx-Stadt 730209; Ob. Gericht der DDR 730406; LG/BG Chemnitz 941010
Country where the crime was committed:
Crime Location: Nowogrudok, Bielowiec, Bodzentyn, Bodzentyn-Celiny, Debno,
Grabkow, Huta-Sklana, Jeziorko, Klonow, Krasnik-Wysokie, Nowa-Slupia, Opoczno, Parczew, Psary-Podlesy,
Swietla-Katharczyna, Tarczek, Woiciechow, Wola-Szczygielkowa, Wywoz,
Crime Date: 12/1941, 08/1942 - 12/1944
Prisoners, Jews, Gypsies, Civilians
Gendarmerie platoon (mot.) 7, Gendarmerie battalion. (mot.) 1, Gendarmerie platoon (mot.) 62
Subject of the proceeding:
Participation in herding together and deporting Jews from
. Seizure, mishandling,
deportation and shooting of civilians during patrols, during the systematic search of areas suspected of
partisan presence as well as in the course of so-called village inspection raids within the context of
anti-partisan warfare ("Bandenbekämpfung") in the Radom district
Summary execution of prisoners. Shooting of a group of men, women and children (Gypsies and Jews) discovered
incidentally during a patrol. Shooting of village inhabitants as reprisal for a nearby partisan attack.
Arrest of civilians as hostages for family members who could not be found (the hostages were later shot).
DDR-Justiz und NS-Verbrechen
- Nazi Crimes on Trial
Zbigniew Lesisz: O Zydach Zwolenskich
, Zwolen 1999
© ARC 2005